Phase 1 Site Assessment

What is a Phase 1 Site Assessment

A phase 1 site assessment essentially produces the same report as the preliminary site assessment with one exception – – it includes the results from testing performed during the on – site inspection of both the interior and exterior of the site. The results of this testing are usually included as a separate section of the report. The phase I is the assessment most used by potential purchasers and also by lenders when the lender specifies the type of assessment to be done.

When performing the site inspection for phase 1 report, the consultant will carry the sampling kit as he or she performs the ground inspection. The kit will contain various types of containers and sampling instruments as well as labels and a notebook for recording samples taken. The process is relatively simple and should not take much more than the inspection for a PSA.

Exterior Testing

Exterior testing for phase 1 studies is generally limited to areas of specific interest. An environmental consultant will look for certain “signs” that indicate the necessary to do soil testing, i.e. Visible soil staining, areas without any vegetation, railroad track easements with staining on and around the tracks, cleared areas around electrical transformers.

Polychlorinated biphenyls are of particular concern: they were widely used in hydraulic fluids and oils on trains and as insulating liquids and transformers. also of interest are petroleum hydrocarbons which result from various oils, gasoline’s, hydraulic and other fluids that have been spilled or dumped on the ground, and the various.

Underground storage tanks are a major cause for concern on any property. Evidence of an underground storage tank in the form of gas pumps, filling facilities, including our bowels will almost certainly be noted and tested. Testing should be done to determine whether an underground storage tank has become a leaking underground storage tank.

Three types of tests are performed on underground storage tanks to evaluate the soil, the tank, and the groundwater. Taking soil samples 3 to 5 feet down is standard procedure. The samples are tested for petroleum products and their derivatives to determine if there has been any spillage or leakage. In conjunction with the soil sample, a “tightness” test is usually performed on tanks using an instrument positioned inside the tank. This is used to determine the presence of a leaking underground storage tank.

A monitoring well test underground water underneath the tank is always recommended in these situations. Although such test can be very expensive and time-consuming, most experts agree that any tank more than five years old has a 95% chance of leakage. From the property purchaser’s perspective, a test of underground water should always be performed.

When “active” tanks have annual tightness test records that go back 5 to 7 years and reveal no leakage, soil tests are unnecessary. These records should be easy to obtain through the owner of the tank – – the property owner or tenant – – tank owners are required by law to make such tests and keep records of them. The tank owning tenant should be required to provide the management company with a copy of each of these tests when completed. The manager taking over management of the property that has underground tanks and has no test results on file should request tests immediately upon commencement of the management contract.

The results of phase 1 tests should be included in the detailed section of the report along with copies of laboratory analysis and testing diagrams and parameters to support documentation sometimes provided as appendixes to the report because of the number of tests involved. The executive summary should contain a synopsis of the test results.

Construction Estimating Design Stages

Overview of the Design Stages

  1. Conceptual.
  2. Schematic Design.
  3. Design Development.
  4. Construction Documents.

Conceptual Design Stage

  • Description: Conceptual Estimate
  • The estimate at this point is based on Square Foot or Unit Cost
  • Accuracy of Estimate: The order of magnitude estimate has a large margin of error because so little information is available regarding the specific details of the project. Typical accuracy of estimate has a 20 -25% margin of error.


Schematic Design Stage

  • Description: Building will be laid out, and interior program will be established.
  • Includes an idea of the facade finish, structural system (steel, concrete, CMU block). General layout of the typical floors would be shown.
  • Accuracy of Estimate: 15 – 20% margin of error.
  • Cost estimators will have enough guidelines to help them better determine the design concept and allow them to move to the next stage of cost estimating.

A general layout is provided though specific details are not decided. However, for cost estimating purposes some general assumptions are made for the architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire alarm system.

Design Development Stage

  • Description: Owners have developed further guidelines for the project.
  • Accuracy of Estimate: Within a 10% margin of error.
  • Includes functional areas such as bathrooms, conference rooms, workstations and private offices.
  • The architectural drawing become increasingly detailed to include reflective ceiling plans, finish plans, furniture plans, and HVAC, plumbing, and electrical plans.

Construction Design Stage

  • Description: Specifications and drawings for the construction project. Most defined set of drawings the design consultants will produce.
  • Details will be fully established for flooring, walls, ceilings, furniture and all MEP systems.
  • Subcontractors will be able to develop shop-drawings based on these documents.
  • Accuracy of Estimate: Within a 5% margin of error.


St. Mary’s Hospital History – 1929 thru 1980

Organization and Growth of St. Mary’s

There was a growth in the number of indigent patients coming to the hospital with nothing approaching the modern concept of governmental or societal responsibility to provide adequate medical care at public expense. Coupled with that was the gradual withdrawal of the southern Pacific patients to the Southern Pacific hospital on Congress Street. The move hurt the cash flow of the hospital even though it could provide more room for patient care the remodeling of the vacated wards was carried out at best as was possible. Far better functional space was found, moreover.

More mothers were looking to a hospital confinement for delivery that had been the case in the past.

Facility Maintenance Personnel

Non-medical staff were hired to take over those duties with nurse supervision when necessary. For the more physically demanding janitorial and maintenance jobs, more male personnel was another requirement.

There is an added problem with additional equipment supplied to hospitals because equipment breaks down, power failure, plumbing and backups.

In order to solve this, on call maintenance personnel were needed 24-hours a day. In 1935, the hospital commissioned a technical study the fuel needs at the hospital. By 1934, the hospital was making annual purchases of 62,000 gallons of fuel oil, 24 tons of coal, and thousands of gallons of gasoline. This environmental study recommended total conversion to natural gas — a recommendation the hospital accepted, although it was four years before the transformation was complete.

It is easy to assume that what we take for granted today in the matter of basic utilities and services was also available then. Water lines, gas lines, electric power, and sewer systems are related closely to political boundaries.

The hospital was faced with a sewage problem. Ever since its founding, the hospital had dependent on its land area to provide ample room for septic tanks. The expansion over five decades had finally exhausted any further reliance on the system. In 1938, sewer line were finally extended to the hospital without any complications.

In order to be credited by the American Medical Association the hospital had to create a medical library facility and an acceptable autopsy procedures program. So a library building was erected at about the site of the present central tower, and it was in operation by 1933.

Transportation and communication were a world away. Resources were not available either financially or technically allow research and experimentation.

Other hospitals in the area during this time- Southern Methodist, the Southern Pacific hospital.

Unfortunately, the Great Depression played havoc with the newer institutions, and before the decade was out, Southern Methodist closed its doors, while most of Southern Pacific surgery cases were sent to California. By 1939, for all practical purposes, St. Mary’s was the only General Hospital functioning in the area.

In the area of maintenance and repair, improvisation became the order of the day as the needs of the nation at war took priority in the acquisition and utilization of material. The explosion and population and changes were sudden, confusing and overwhelming, problematic for those who have the obligation to care for the medical needs of the new arrivals.

By 1946 it was painfully evident that the cycle of remodeling and expansion had to begin a new. Plans and projects had to await the availability of materials, the switch of construction companies from a war economy to a civilian economy, and returned to whatever normalcy might ensue.

Before the hospital could be enlarged, a great need for hospital beds led to the shortening of the patient stay in the hospital. These were cut to the minimum until hospital care for almost twice as many patients as before. More beds, however, were still needed, and plans were made for construction of a new central building. Adequate space had to be provided for surgery where 3825 operations were performed during the year and overtaxed facilities.

A place would also have to be provided as a center for the storage and distribution of radioactive medications. New areas had to be planned for the physical therapy department, for an enlarged pharmacy, for office and business space, for new dietary department, and for a staff meeting room.

Construction of the new nine story building was begun in 1948 and completed in 1949 you one essential wing did furnish the much-needed room for expansion. St. Mary’s of 1947 contained 120 beds with the new wing and conversion of areas in the old wings, enough beds were added to bring the number to 375. Medical library which was utilized by medical staff, interns and residents, and student nurses was also expanded. In the operating rooms on the sixth floor where oxygen and other gases were constantly in use, a new static proof floor protected against the possibility of an electric spark.

There was a special cysto surgery area with its own x-ray machines, and portable x-ray equipment could be brought into the orthopedic surgery room to check on the alignment of bones in the placement of internal pins and devices. Tissue samples can be sent to the seventh floor laboratory and a report could be back in five minutes. Blood to offset the effects of surgical shock was also readily available.

The extremely rough road to sign since World War II had created a serious situation with regard to hospital facilities. In 1947, Tucson had a population of 88,700 in total of 500 XT for hospital beds. 10 years later in 1957, the population was 210,000 with an increase of only 190 beds.

St. Mary’s proposed to build an entirely separate hospital of the 150 bed site on the west side of Tucson, Arizona which would be the start of the ultimate 450 bed facility. As time passed the advisability of establishing an east side branch of St. Mary’s as a separate and distinct hospital became clear. The new St. Joseph Tuscon Hospital was dedicated on May 1, 1961 bringing much-needed hospital facilities to the east side of Tucson.

In the meantime, St. Mary’s had to carry on trying to make the healthcare demands on the west side of Tucson. St. Mary’s Central wing given the hospital one of the most modern service units in the Southwest but was a little help in so far as additional hospital beds were concerned.

Moving into the 1960s, St. Mary’s expanded its internal residency program budget had sponsored alone from 1939 and together with the county hospital since 1950. The county hospital, with its hundred and 60 teaching beds for patients, and St. Mary’s medical teaching staff provided the essentials for supervised training experience. Additional teaching beds for St. Mary’s and the appointment of Dr. Eric Ramsey for the new position of director of medical education 1960 expanded the hospital’s teaching clinical activities. Tucson Medical Center had its own program, but under a new arrangement, medical lectures were shared with St. Mary’s and county hospital.

The Nursing School Closes

The school of nursing would close with the graduation of its last class in 1966. For years, the sanatorium then the “home” to its patients as the school of nursing home student nurses. Sanatorium was to be the first of the old hospital buildings to come down, making way for new facilities. In 1900, 48 rooms were filled until 1951 improve medication for tuberculosis eliminated the need for long-term stays.

The school of nursing, served the community for well over 50 years, graduating about 900 students, many of whom held under still holding high positions in the field of nursing.

The most significant changes faced by the hospital was the passage of Medicare making 66 Medicare funds were made available to patients over 65 or for disabled persons who otherwise would not be able to afford medical care. As the hospital prepared for an influx of Medicare patients, consultant decided to send procedures in all departments with a view toward the acquisition of the user.

The first weekend of Medicare went smoothly the St. Mary’s reporting 44 eligible because I Medicare. The second week were 84, before long 24% of the beds were occupied. By Medicare patients. With the inception of Medicare, the business office had to change its procedures and billing Medicare patients, as reimbursement rates were different from those of other insurances. But Medicare also came the need for additional beds and employees and an increase in medical costs.

A new emphasis on rehabilitation therapy brought in the patients. Recognition of the value of physical rehabilitation General Hospital grew slowly.

The North Wing

St. Mary’s fourth story weighing, known as the North wing, became a reality in 1971. Preceding its completion were five years of planning and efforts by sister Mary and the dedicated board chair successfully by our pack. To list interest in support of the community leaders of Tucson, a special committee was formed named the second century committee, in honor of the hundred years of service given to the people of Tucson by the sisters of St. Joseph who arrived in the old Pueblo 1870.

On September 29, 1969, when ground was broken for the new North Wayne, was the culmination of the struggle and the confirmation of a bully of sister and Mary’s board and administration that, and the collected underdeveloped Westside barrio, St. Mary’s had a future. Few businesses had been established west of the freeway, neighborhood improvements were lacking and lending companies politely refuse sister married their help and money. It was only the supportive response of the Knights of Columbus to St. Mary’s appeal for a loan that enabled the project to be financially undertaken.

There is no human answer to suffering. It is only in going beyond the human to the realms of a that meaning can be found. Recognition of this fact enables doctors, nurses and other health workers to appreciate contribution of the pastoral visitors to total patient care.

In 1965, the emergency room was comprised of five structures and three wooden tables a total of four rooms. Entrance from the outside was through a set of double doors which led from a loading dock with ramps on either end ambulance back then so that the stretch with patients can be carried out onto the deck. As recently as the 1960s, the ambulance companies were run by mortuaries. Besides the trauma room and a larger orthopedic world there were two examining rooms, 8 x 10’, each containing a bed, sink, chair and wood and covered. The small room became crowded in an emergency situation which called for an intern, a resident and two nurses.

The recovery room gave Oscar low and different relation capabilities to the emergency department. New emergency facilities, opened in the North Wayne in 1971, included three large surgical suites, each able to accommodate five patients. We’ll structures, with removable beds, allow the patient to be transported to the nursing floors without having to transfer sperm structure to hospital but.

Mental Health

In 1971 a mental health services unit was opened. The main thrust of the treatment was to help drug abusers to withdraw from harmful drugs and to enable the emotionally ill to cope with stress. Patients could be admitted through the emergency room or by physician referral or from the service or health agency.

Century Medical Plaza

The Century Medical Plaza was St. Mary’s first outpatient services, physician’s building that would attract more physicians. Mary’s was becoming more than General Hospital, and, reflecting its expanding role was a new name: St. Mary’s Hospital and Health Center.

Long-range plan completed in 1975, indicated further need for renovation and expansion. Plans for a new West Wing were presented and after a year to pick it up need was obtained from the Arizona State Department of health services. Is this still required to mark in keeping with the plans, new power plant had to be completed and existing buildings had to be serviced before construction of the new wing could begin.

St. Mary’s, the oldest hospital in Tucson, is now the newest in its overall aspect of added space, new facilities and new equipment housed in a splendid new way which comprises the majority of patient care facilities. Including 254 patient beds in the new way and those of the North Wayne patient areas, St. Mary’s now accommodates a total of 374 patient beds.

The obstinate tracks Ward. Hospitals had seen the decline in obstetric patients since the 60s as doctors who delivered babies and moved to the east side of the patients were sent to Tucson Medical Center.

With the exodus of doctors and patients the hospital had to operate its obstetrics ward on a standby basis with an annual average of 72 babies in the last four years of its operation. This number was far below the federal guidelines calling for a minimum of 1500 deliveries a year. Sadly, on October 1, 1978 St. Mary’s closed its obstetric ward.

As of 1971 the hospital provided ongoing educational programs to doctors and nurses.

Laminar Air-flow system. During surgery the possibility of wound infection is extremely serious and the laminar airflow system is the most advanced in providing an ultraclean area.

Outpatient surgery.

The need to cut down hospital costs has driven the expansion of outpatient or ambulatory surgery units. This allows for admission surgery discharge the patient on the same day basis

Cost Modelling Construction

Cost modelling in construction is used to determine the cost of building a particular structure. Cost models are typically required for a builder to obtain financing, factor into business plans, budgets, and other financial planning.

At PCI, Inc. we have a long history of providing cost modelling for new construction, especially with medical construction.

What Factors are Taken into Consideration?

When cost modelling there are a multitude of variables taken into consideration. Some of the most basic costs taken into consideration are:

  • Labor;
  • Steel;
  • Cement;
  • Parking structures;

Models typically function through the input of parameters that describe the attributes of the product or project in question, and possibly physical resource requirements. The model then provides as output various resources requirements in cost and time. Some models concentrate only on estimating project costs (often a single monetary value).

Other cost models are used to calculate costs of equipment, which provides more accuracy than models on a project level. Usage of these models is dependent on required accuracy and the phase of the project and its estimate.